By Berois, Nibia
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Daget, J. P. E. Thys van den Audenaerde, ISNB, Brussels, MRAC; Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. 2, 165–276. Wildekamp, R. , K. M Shidlovsky, and B. R. Watters. 2009. Systematics of the Nothobranchius melanospi lus species group (Cyrpinodontiformes: Nothobranchiidae) with description of two new species from Tanzania and Mozambique. Ichtyological Exploration of Freshwaters 20:237–254. Chapter 2 Life Cycle, Reproduction, and Development in Annual Fishes Cellular and Molecular Aspects Nibia Berois, María José Arezo, Nicolás G.
Copeia 2004:569–576. 1643/CI-03-277R1 Hrbek, T. and A. Larson. 1999. The evolution of diapause in the killifish family Rivulidae (Atherinomorpha Atherinomorpha, Cyprinodontiformes): A molecular phylogenetic and biogeographic perspective. Evolution 53:1200–1216. 2307/2640823 Hrbek, T. and D. C. Taphorn. 2008. Description of a new annual rivulid killifish genus from Venezuela. Zootaxa 1734:27–42. Huber, J. H. 1996. Killi-Data 1996. Updated Checklist of Taxonomic Names, Collecting Localities and Bibliographic References of Oviparous Cyprinodont Fishes (Atherinomorpha, Pisces).
M. 2014a. Vertebrate Zoology 64:177–192; Murphy, W. J. and G. E. Collier. 1997. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14:790–799; Murphy, W. J. and G. E. Collier. 1996. Molecular Biology and Evolution 13:642–649; Murphy, W. , J. E. Thomerson, and G. E. Collier. 1999b. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13:289–301; Hrbek, T. and A. Larson. 1999. , C. P. Deus, and I. P. Farias. 2004. Copeia 2004:569–576; Hrbek, T. and D. C. Taphorn. 2008. ) Parenti 1981 First postcleithrum absent Branchiostegal and opercular membranes united Obsolescent preopercular and lacrimal canals Lacrimal, preopercular, and mandibular canals represented by neuromasts Medial process of lateral ethmoid expanded Head scales arranged in circular pattern (Note: Costa  disagrees; Costa  proposed again but modified)a Process on ventral arm of maxilla (Note: Costa  disagrees; Costa  modified; Costa  modified again)a Costa 1990 Costa 1998 Costa 2004 Hertzwig 2008 First postcleithrum absent Membranes over opercular and branchiostegal rays fused Mandibular and lacrimal canals absent Reduced preopercular canal Anteromedian process of lateral ethmoid curved Expanded lateral ethmoid surface pointing toward parasphenoid (Note: subsequently modified by Costa ) Preopercle elongated (with internal curvature reduced) Neural spine of first vertebrae present Cartilaginous interhyal (Note: deleted by Costa , since bony condition in Kryptolebias) Diving into substrate to lay eggs (Note: Costa  disagrees) Absence of the first postcleithrum Branchiostegal and opercular membranes united Absence of mandibular canal and reduction of the preopercular bone Well-developed process on the anterior border of lateral ethmoid Triangular ventral process of maxilla (Note: modified from Parenti )a Thin, C-shaped preopercle Neural spine of first vertebra (Note: synapomorphy for Notobranchoidea; Costa 2004) Cartilaginous interhyal (Note: deleted by Costa , since bony condition in Kryptolebias) Straight posterior border of the distal tip of premaxilla Reduced coronoid process of dentary Short ventral portion of autopalatine Reduced uncinate process of the third epibranchial Reduced lateral border of frontal Extremely twisted and narrowed lacrimal Minute dermosphenotic Reduced basihyal cartilage (Note: homoplasic; Costa 2004) Absence of a posterior flange on cleithrum (Note: present in Kryptolebias; Costa 2004) Hypurals ankylosed to form a single hypural plate (Note: not discussed in Costa ) Transverse dark bar crossing the eye (Note: only in Cynolebiasinae; Costa 2004) Annual life cycle (Note: nonannual in Costa ) Reduced mesopterygoid, short snout, and elongate rostral cartilage (Note: not discussed in Costa ) First postcleithrum absent Branchiostegal and opercular membranes united Infraorbital, preopercular, and mandibular canals open Pronounced retrorse process of lateral ethmoid Frontal scales circularly arranged around scale Aa Ventral process of maxilla bent and directed posteriorly (Note: modified from Costa )a Thin C-shaped preopercle Posterior distal border of distal premaxilla straight Coronoid process of dentary narrow Ventral tip of autopalatine shortened Uncinate process of third epibranchial median Shortened lateral rim of frontal lacrimal very twisted and narrow Minute dermosphenotic Posterior tip of ascending process of premaxilla curved medially Ventral process of anguloarticular median Proximal edge of first hypobranchial bifid Supracleithrum and postcleithrum separated A1 Adductor mandibulae with a completely separated medial portion (character 5) A1 Adductor mandibulae inserts caudally on the maxillary (character 14) A1 Adductor mandibulae origin expanded posteriorly and ventrally at the preopercle (character 23) Origin of the m.