By Richard Öhlinger, Andreas Adler (auth.), Antonio Logrieco, Angelo Visconti (eds.)
The turning out to be curiosity in wellbeing and fitness hazards linked to toxigenic fungi and similar mycotoxins has ended in the improvement of a couple of learn tasks in the past decade in numerous ecu international locations and loads of details has been produced at the traditional prevalence of mycotoxins in crops, meals and feeds. the variations in environmental stipulations (temperature, gentle, rainfall and so on. ) and in uncovered cultivated vegetation (type of cereals, cultivars and so forth. ) within the specified eu nations have considerably stimulated the distribution of particular toxigenic fungi and comparable mycotoxicological difficulties. additionally, biogeographically established lineages inside of a few very important toxigenic fungi were lately found, of reproductive isolation. Transglobal displaying a protracted evolutionary background transposition of plant items turns out to have considerably contributed to the spreading of toxigenic species and lineages world wide. hence, the migration of agriculturally vital toxigenic fungi generated through exchange exchanges could signify an immense resource of inoculum for brand new plant illnesses in Europe and for a much wider genetic variety of neighborhood populations. It was once our aim to supply the reader with an replace of researches and surveys at the common incidence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins played at a eu point over the last 5-10 years. The editors are super thankful to the EU-COST-835 "Agriculturally vital toxigenic fungi" for the monetary aid that allowed a couple of ecu scientists to satisfy a number of instances over the last 5 years to collaborate and alternate information regarding study advances on toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins.
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Extra info for An Overview on Toxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxins in Europe
Aspergillus flavus strains produced mainly AFBI with various levels of toxigenicity (0,09-240 mg/kg and/or mg/L). Among these isolates, some strains were able to produce both AFBI and AFG I (120-220 mg/L). Besides AF-s, CPAproduction was observed in 5,2% of A. flavus strains (0,5-30 mg/kg) but none of them produced both CPA and AF-s. High potent AF-producers were A. parasiticus strains, which produced all four aflatoxins (2 strains), or AFBI+AFG I (4 strains) in the range from 0,1 to 240 mg/kg (AFB I+AFB 2 ) and from 0,8 to 450 mg/kg (AFG I+AFG2).
Brygoo, Y. (2002). Identification by PCR of Fusarium culmorum strains producing large and small amounts of deoxynivalenol. , & Pietri, A. (2002). Ochratoxin A in grapes and wine. , & Restani, P. (2000). Patulin in apple-based foods: occurrence and safety evaluation. W. (2002). Epidemiology of Fusarium infection and deoxynivalenol content in winter wheat in the Rhineland, Germany. European Journal of Plant Pathology, I 08,667-673 Bottalico, A. (1998). Fusarium diseases of cereals: species complex and related mycotoxin profiles in Europe.
2002b Segvic & Pepeljnjak, 2003 0,07-9 mg/L CTN 181-1320 mg/L FB) 66/66 5/96 9/96 Cvetnic & Pepeljnjak, 1998 Pepeljnjak & Cvetnic, 1998 Cvetnic & Pepeljnjak,1997 11129 Cvetnic & Pepeljnjak, 1995 Cvetnic & Pepeljnjak 1991 Cvetnic & Pepeljnjak, 1990 Cvetnic & Pepeljnjak, 1986 0,1-240 mg/kg AFB J 20-34,5 mg/kg AFB2 08-450 mg/kg AFG J 10,4-60 mg/kg AFG2 0,3 mg/kg AFB J 3,8-120 mg/kg ST 0,4-2,4 mg/kg ZEN 16 mg/kg T-2 26,6 mg/kg DAS 0,1-1,33 mg/L AFB J+B 2 0,5-30 mg/kg CPA 0,1-14,8 mg/kg AFB J 0,09-240 mg/L AFB J 120-220 mg/L AFG J 0,3-240 mg/L OTA 0,07-240 mg/L OTA 0,22-27 mg/L OTA 0,32 mg/kg AFB J 4,0-56 mg/kg ST 5/56 2/56 11136 10/27 15/43 112 3115 Pepeljnjak & Cvetnic, 1981 Reference 8/75 2/75 6/75 2/75 1/36 6118 2114 1114 116 6/15 Mycotoxin/ range of concentration 0,1-11,5 mg/kg OTA Toxinogenic strains/total 18/24 Table 3.