By Stuart C. Poole (auth.)
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Linguistics
Secondly, we cannot put dog and bitch alongside poodle, terrier and spaniel as hyponyms of dog, for while being a poodle precludes being a spaniel it does not preclude being a bitch; we are dealing with another dimension. Love can be presented as a hyponym of emotion. But is it an immediate hyponym or is there something else in between? Rogel's Thesaurus, which adopts a hierarchical arrangement like hyponymy, has love as a hyponym of sympathetic affections, which in turn is a hyponym of affections.
The sounds [f] and , as represented by
in sure and treasure, are articulated further back than [s] and [z] and are often called palato-alveolar sounds. These four fricative sounds have greater acoustic energy and may be distinguished as sibilants. The initial sounds of the words chair and jump, as the phonetic symbols used in Britain, [tf] and [d3], suggest, are a combination of plosive and fricative sounds; if they are considered to be single segments as opposed to combinations of two segments - opinion varies - they are called affricates.
In the case of white lies and blue jokes the logical link with a colour is less apparent still. With white coffee we are dealing with a set phrase where the meaning can at least be guessed at on the basis of the two constituent words. Conceivably the white in white lie suggests purity of intention. In the case of bluejoke knowing what part of the colour spectrum is indicated by the word blue gives us no help in understanding what a blue joke is. When the phrase can only be understood as an entity it is an idiom.