By WHO Regional Office for Europe
Moment variation The e-book offers air caliber directions for 35 elements comprehend to give a contribution to the matter of pollution in Europe. during this moment version, the ebook has been significantly up to date and accelerated according to new study findings and advances within the method of probability review. guide values, that have been revised in a sequence of specialist consultations, are meant to function a foundation for the institution of nationwide criteria and different keep watch over measures had to shield public health and wellbeing.
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Extra resources for Air Quality Guidelines for Europe 2nd edition (WHO Regional Publications. European Series)
In the case of human health, the guideline value provides a concentration below which no adverse effects or (in the case of odorous compounds), no nuisance or indirect health significance are expected, although it does not guarantee the absolute exclusion of effects at concentrations below the given value. Standard A standard is considered to be the level of an air pollutant, such as a concentration or a deposition level, that is adopted by a regulatory authority as enforceable. Unlike the case of a guideline value, a number of elements in addition to the effect-based level and the averaging time have to be specified in the formulation of a standard.
Separate consideration is given to risk estimates for asbestos (Table 5) and radon daughters (Table 6) because they refer to different physical units, and the risk estimates are indicated in the form of ranges. Risk estimation for residential radon exposure has often been based on extrapolation of findings in underground miners. Several circumstances, however, make such estimates uncertain for the general population: exposure to other factors in the mines; differences in age and sex; size distribution of aerosols; the attached fraction of radon progeny; breathing rate; and 38 chapter 3 Table 5.
Generally, when short-term exposures lead to adverse effects, short-term averaging times are recommended. The use of a long-term average under such conditions would be misleading, since the typical pattern of repeated peak exposures is lost during the averaging process and the risk manager would have difficulties in deciding on effective strategies. In other cases, knowledge of the exposure–response relationship may be sufficient to allow recommendation of a long averaging period. This is frequently the case for chemicals that accumulate in the body and thereby produce adverse effects.