By Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan
This e-book had its genesis in a symposium on fuel hydrates awarded on the 2003 Spring nationwide assembly of the yankee Institute of Chemical Engineers. The symposium consisted of twenty papers provided in 4 classes over days. extra visitor authors have been invited to supply continuity and canopy themes no longer addressed through the symposium. gasoline hydrates are a special type of chemicals the place molecules of 1 compound (the visitor fabric) are enclosed, with out bonding chemically, inside an open reliable lattice composed of one other compound (the host material). a majority of these configurations are referred to as clathrates. The visitor molecules, u- best friend gases, are of a suitable measurement such that they healthy in the cage shaped via the host fabric. Commonexamples of fuel hydrates are carbon dioxide/water and methane/water clathrates. At typical strain and temperature, methane hydrate comprises through quantity a hundred and eighty instances as a lot methane as hydrate. the USA Geological Survey (USGS) has expected that there's extra natural carbon c- tained as methane hydrate than all different kinds of fossil fuels mixed. in reality, methane hydrates may provide a fresh resource of strength for numerous centuries. Clathrate compounds have been first came across within the early 1800s while Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday have been experimenting with chlorine-water combos.
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Extra info for Advances in the Study of Gas Hydrates
Is the partition function of indefinite number of guest molecules inside one cage 23 Statistical Thermodynamic Model is the absolute activity function of k guest molecules inside cage and the canonical partition Here is the kinetic energy and is the potential energy of k guest molecules in the cage, is phase-space volume element (h is the Planck constant). By the definition of the grand canonical ensemble the probability to find k particles in one cage is equal to Representing as products of kinetic and configuration partition functions we have Then, equating as usual, activities of the guest in the clathrate and gas phase, when (p is the guest gas pressure), we obtain where are the configuration integrals Comparing (7) with (2) we obtain the microscopic statistical expression for Langmuir’s constants for general case of arbitrary cage filling.
3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES A number of publications present data on hydrate formation and/or dissociation. Experimental equipment and procedures differ slightly but are essentially similar. As this paper analyzes the in-house data from experiments at NETL, these experiments will be described in detail. Experiments were conducted in a high-pressure view cell (Figure 4). 4 cm Phenomenological Modeling of Hydrate Formation and Dissociation 35 Figure 4. Schematic of Hydrate View Cell. (11 inches) in length.
The hydrate recovery, defined as the percentage of the original hydrate that has decomposed, is 22%. The solid line in Figure 7b shows the gas production rate for CASE 1, while the solid squares show the gas production rate if there was no hydrate decomposition. The results indicate that 52 M. Pooladi-Darvish and H. Hong Figure 7a. Cumulative gas production, generation and hydrate recovery vs. time of CASE 1. the decline in gas production rate is much smaller for the hydrate reservoir. The difference between the two curves is due to hydrate decomposition, shown using the open triangles.