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By Dimock, Laura Gail

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Extra resources for A Grammar of Nahavaq (Malakula, Vanuatu)

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Younger speakers do not have prenasalised stops in coda position. 2). 5. Bilabial trill Either of the prenasalised labial stops can have a trilled allophone before /u/. 512]. Cross-linguistically, bilabial trills most often occur before high rounded vowels, and Maddieson (1989a) gives an aerodynamic explanation of this phenomenon, and Nahavaq fits the typical pattern for bilabial trill genesis. Bilabial trills, though rare in the phonologies of the world’s languages are common on Malakula. ), Avava (Crowley 2006a: 30-32) and Uripiv (McKerras 2001: 1) have prenasalised bilabial trills as phonemes separate from prenasalised bilabial stops.

However, because all these examples can occur with the high vowel intact, I do not consider the consonant cluster to be the underlying form. 1 deals with 37 Note that /e/ is occasionally produced before /a/ and /o/ roots, and is considered acceptable, but /a/ and /o/ realisations are much more common in these contexts. Because /e/ is acceptable in all contexts and because it is the standard realisation for these vowels in most contexts, I treat the vowels in these prefixes as being underlyingly /e/.

18 None of those three speakers produced [ɳɖɽ] consistently in spontaneous speech. It is difficult to tell whether [ɳɖɽ] constituted an allophone of /nd/ or a separate phoneme. One older speaker was able to tell me that both [ɳɖɽ] or [nd] were appropriate pronunciations in words like [maɳɖɽ]~[mand] ‘bleed’, but that for other words such as [lund] ‘peel skin’, a pronunciation with [ɳɖɽ] was wrong. However, while his judgements generally aligned with the transcriptions of Charpentier (1982), he was not entirely consistent in his judgements.

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