By James A. Chapman
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Additional resources for Vocabulary Spelling Poetry 2 (Teacher's Key)
A second case is from Lardil, where short noun stems are augmented and long ones truncated in the nominative. 15)) involves a further violation of FILL: the optimal parse supplies an empty nuclear slot, and phonetic material is supplied. 16). Here, PARSE is violated ± the ®nal vowel is left unparsed and therefore unrealisable, and because of restrictions on the coda in Lardil, preceding consonants are typically also lost, as in the `termite' example. 17). ' (Prince and Smolensky 1993: 101) The OT account of insertion and deletion is problematic in several respects.
Due to the prior application of a Level 1 af®xation rule on the same cycle. However, it will not be applicable in ivory and nightingale; these happen to meet the structural description of TSL at the underlying level, but they are not trisyllabic by virtue of any concatenation operation, nor do they undergo any phonological rule feeding TSL. Their underliers can therefore be listed as equivalent to their surface forms, and their apparent exceptionality with respect to TSL follows automatically from the SCC.
As Halle and Idsardi (1997: 337±8) argue, `Conceptually, reliance on an arbitrary stipulation that is outside the system of Optimality is equivalent to giving up on the enterprise. ' At the very least, this introduction of rules alongside constraints removes the alleged formal superiority of OT, making it just as theoretically heterogeneous as LP, for instance, in containing both categories of statement. 2 Modelling sound changes We return now more speci®cally to diachronic evidence. Proponents of some recent phonological models explicitly exclude historical processes from their ambit; Coleman (1995: 363), for instance, working within Declarative Phonology, refuses to consider one of Bromberger and Halle's (1989) arguments for rule ordering because of `its diachronic nature.