By Edward Rosset
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Additional resources for 3000 Keys Tests (Spanish Edition)
In earlier stages of Spanish, haber, which originates from the Latin possessive verb habere, co-existed as a lexical verb with diverse periphrastic constructions derived from it. From medieval Spanish onward, the lexical use of haber gradually decreased, while its auxiliary use increased (cf. g. Pountain 1985: 341-347; Olbertz 1993: 252-256). In modern Spanish haber has no lexical function at all, except for the expression haber menester de + infinitive 'need', which, however, isrestrictedto literary language use.
Juan estar. ' 7. In all other contexts, ser and estar are in complementary distribution. Expression rules 21 The semantic difference illustrated by means of (37a) and (37b) motivates Hengeveld's (1986: 400) view "that estar, when combined with an adjectival predicate, serves to express progressive meaning". e. a copular element that "adds an element of meaning to the construction in which it occurs" (Hengeveld 1992b: 35). Consequently, in the context of adjectival predications, estar is not the output of a supportive expression rule, but of a replacive one (the expression of a Progressive operator), whereas, in the same context, ser is the output of a supportive expression rule.
30 The data ber 963 of Cambiol6. In Appendix I, the abbreviations are listed together with the titles to which they refer. The sources of the examples that do not stem from the corpus are indicated by means of the author's name or the name of the magazine plus the page number. These indications follow the translation of the example. In the course of the description of the testing procedures in chapters 4-6 and chapter 8, it will become obvious that there are quite a few examples that are neither ungrammatical nor entirely acceptable.